Source apportionment of particulate matter at urban mixed site in Indonesia using PMF
Authors: Puji Lestari*, Yandhinur Dwi Mauliadi
Department of Environmental Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), JL. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) is a receptor model and is being used for pollution source apportionment. In this paper, this model is used to find the source apportionment of particulate matter at urban mixed site in Indonesia. Samples were collected for 24 hours in wet and dry seasons. This data was analyzed using PMF, which in its mathematical form can be written as
X = GF + E
Where GF denotes the systematic variation in the samples and E is the residual.
The model needs FPEAK value and number of components and tells the source profile and source contribution.
In dry season, fine particels had 6 factors. First factor consists of black carbon and sulphate emissions and is contributed by the local vehicle emissions. Second factor was identifies as the black carbon and potassium indicators and is a result of biomass burning. Lead was identified in the third factor which results from tetraethyl based fuels in gasoline running vehicles. The fourth factor had sodium and sulphates which comes from sea salt emissions. Fifth factor contained Al and Cr which was identified to be contributed by the industry. Sixth factor was contributed by the motor cycles containing BC, Cl, Mg, and Ca.
Coarse particulate matter had 5 factors. First factor was identified as the sea salt aerosols containing Na, Mg, and sulphates. Second factor had Al, sulphates, Cr, and Cl contributed by electroplating industry. Third factor was found to be having Cl, sulphate, Na, Mg, Ca and Fe coming from volcanic emissions. Al, Ca, Ti and Fe were found in fourth factor and were found to be contributed by the soil dust. The presence of Al, Ca, Ti and Fe was from lime industry.
Wet season samples show 8 factors in fine particulate matter and 6 factors in coarse particulate matter. They are listed below.
Fine Particulate Matter
Factor # Components Source
1 Ca, Si, K, and Fe Lime dust
2 Black carbon and Pb Gasoline vehicles
3 Black carbon and K Biomass burning
4 Solid waste components Biomass burning
5 BC, SO42-, Fe, and Zn Motorcycles and diesel vehicles
6 NH4+, SO42- Secondary aerosols
7 NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+ Secondary aerosols
8 Crustal elements Soil dust
Coarse Particulate Matter
Factor # Components Source
1 NH4+, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, and crustal elements Soil dust
2 K, Ti, Fe, and Zn Steel industry
3 SO42-, Cu Industry
4 Crustal elements and SO42- Volcanic dust
5 Ca Lime dust
6 SO42-, Al, Ca, Ti, and Ni Construction dust
By: Aamir Alaud-din