1.Title and Author
Title: Fluorescence as a potential monitoring tool for recycled water systems: a review
Authors: R.K. Hendersona,*, A. Bakera,b, K.R. Murphya,c, A.Hamblya, R.M. Stuetza, S.J. Khana
.UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
.School of Geography, Earth an Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK
.Smithsonian Environmental Research Centre, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21037,USA
2. Summary of Paper
Commonly, as the existing technologies, we are using the total organic carbon and conductivity monitoring tools for detecting contamination events. However those methods have the obvious problem such as the low-sensitivity.
In this paper, the author mainly talks about the potential monitoring tool- fluorescence, which is high- sensitivity and selectivity and it could be used to identify trace sewage contamination in river waters and estuaries. (the author uses the recycled water system, which is similarity to the river waters and estuaries)
The fluorescence spectroscopy is being seen as the potential monitoring method because it is a rapid, reagentless technique that requires no sample preparation prior to analysis. And more, comparing with the UV method (which is commercialized for wastewater monitoring), the sensitivity of fluorescence is typically 10-10000 times better with single-molecule detection being possible.
However, there are matrix effects can affect the analytical results.
The first one is the inner filtering effect. We know the inner filtering effect refers to an apparent decrease in emission quantum yield. And here the distortion of band shape will affect the result of the absorption of excited and emitted radiation by the sample matrix.
And the other is the fluorescence quenching. There are pH, temperature, metal ions, oxidant are concluded.
Temperature: Fluorescence intensity is highly depended on the temperature and increasing of temperature will lead the fluorescence intensity.
PH: PH can affect the fluorescence intensity and spectral shapes of humic- and fulvic- like substances and to a lesser extent, tryptophan-like substances.
Metal ions: and investigation on the effect of metal ions, the author found that the metal ions like iron, aluminum and nickel metal ions appeared to have no impact on fluorescence intensity. And there is no clear evidence to appear that metal ions can affect the intensity of fluorescence.
Oxidants: Advanced oxidation typically causes a decrease in overall fluorescence intensity.
All of those matrix effects are being the major challenge in use of fluorescence as a monitoring technique now.
Actually, this paper just reviews the fluorescence monitoring method from top to bottom with the experiment in the recycled water systems. And now, I am running the CSO system and it is also kind of the recycled water systems. Based on the result from this paper and I hope I could have an idea for the future study and I hope it could give the new ways of the monitoring method for the lab members. However I afraid that this paper just give us the kind of introduction, so if you need to do the detail work in your own rearch, you need more high-class paper or research on the fluorescence monitoring.
And the end, I want to say thank you to Seung Won Lee who give us the idea of the fluorescence monitoring